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Magic Ore: Marine Drugs

The Ocean Gift

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In recent years, the vast ocean has become a treasure of the new molecular structure of medicine. Scientists have begun a global ocean bioprospecting, collecting and sorting samples, exploring marine anti-cancer drugs. They screen the sample extract effective for tumor cells, isolate and purify the original compound from the extract and applying for patent protection.

Plenty of high-profile drugs originate in the ocean

Trabectedin (Yondelis), the first marine anti-tumor agent to gain approval by the EU, originally derived from an extract from a sea squirt (Ecteinascidia turbinata). The anti-cancer activity was first found in 1960s. By targeting the transcriptional machinery and impairing DNA repair, the drug exerts its activity to treat soft tissue sarcoma and relapsed ovarian cancer. Eribulin mesylate (Halaven), the fourth marine-derived drug on the market, was approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. This totally synthesized drug is a structurally simplified macro-cyclic ketone, an analogue of the potent cytotoxic compound halichondrin B. In 1986, halichondrin B was first isolated from the marine sponge (Halichondria okadai). So far, the marine drugs approved by FDA are mainly anti-tumor, antiviral and analgesic.

Global marine drug industry is still in its infancy

Picture Ebaum's - Id World Mclovin Current industry scale has reached tens of billions of US dollars. The development potential is tremendous with the annual growth rate is up to 15% -20%. In 1967, the United States first proposed “to the ocean to drug” slogan, opened the prelude of developing marine drugs in the world. The United States, Japan, Switzerland and other developed countries explore marine drug resources to seize the commanding heights of future technological competition. People has isolated more than 20,000 new compounds from marine animals and microbes. More than 200 new compounds with biological activity have been patented, most of them have been extensively tested and preclinical studied.

The industrialization of marine drug has greatly promoted many other industries in the national economy. The United States, Britain, Japan and other countries have already announced that the government’s future investment in marine development will remain at 1.5% -2.0% of GDP. Besides, Johnson & Johnson, Smith & Nephew, Roche and other well-known enterprises are engaged in marine drug development. Business-oriented marine drug research and development is becoming mainstream.

China’s marine drug industry is blooming

The GDP growth rate of China’s marine drug is close to 30%. With the national “blue economy” strategy, China’s marine drug industry has great potential for significant growth and face brand new development opportunities. By 2020, it is estimated that the value of marine drug industry will reach 110 billion RMB.

China has about 1,000 kinds of medicinal marine life, from which hundreds of natural products have been isolated, and these marine life can be utilized in nearly 2000 compound Chinese drugs. Also, 10 kinds of marine drugs have been approved by the cFDA. However, due to the less efficient cooperation among production, teaching and research, the lagging protection of intellectual property rights and the lack of professionals, the potential value of medical application of these marine natural products is under developed. The scale of China’s marine drug industry will accelerate.

Marine drugs approved by FDA

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Name
Picture Ebaum's - Id World Mclovin Approved Year
Marine Organism
Class
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Picture Ebaum's - Id World Mclovin Area
Trabectedin (Yondelis)
2015
Tunicate
Alkaloid
Soft Tissue Sarcoma and Ovarian Cancer
Brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris)
Picture Ebaum's - Id World Mclovin 2011
Mollusk
/cyanobacterium
ADC(MMAE)
Picture Ebaum's - Id World Mclovin Anaplastic large T-cell systemic maglinant lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease
Eribulin Mesylate (Halaven)
2010
Sponge
Macrolide
Metastatic Breast Cancer
Omega-3-acid ethyl esters (Lovaza)
2004
Fish
Omega-3 fatty acids
Hypertriglyceridemia
Ziconotide (Prialt)
2004
Cone snail
Peptide
Severe Chronic Pain
Vidarabine (Vira-A)
1976
Picture Ebaum's - Id World Mclovin Sponge
Nucleoside
Herpes Simplex Virus
Cytarabine (Cytosar-U)
1969
Sponge
Nucleoside
Leukemia

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